So how do we do it? How exactly are dry powder vaccines made?

Conventional drying technologies freeze or bake chemical substances, at -80 °C or +80 °C. Dry formulating vaccines by baking them is fatal, with little chance of the active ingredient surviving. And whilst freeze drying can dry-formulate some vaccines, the finished products still require extensive cold chain storage.



Ziccum’s LaminarPace technology air-dries vaccines at room temperature. It’s a patented technology built on counter-current air flow with stream separation at room temperature.

A solution is introduced through a nebulizer, which disperses the liquid in very small droplets. The small liquid droplets travel down the inner column that is surrounded by a vapor-permeable paper-based membrane. The outer upward flow of very dry air, brings the vapor to the absorption column where it is captured. The dry, micronized substance is collected on a filter holder.

The powder created is easily dissolved back into liquid, or can be used for both inhalation purposes and delivered through the skin. That’s why the technology is ideal for use in vaccines. Room temperature air drying keeps the substance’s active ingredient intact. The result is robust, active dry-powder versions of vaccines that can be quickly transported with no need for cold storage, then diluted back into liquids at the point of inoculation.


LaminarPace has already been used in over ten years of Contract Research, during which it has successfully dried over 100 different substances.

Our dry-powder version of Adenovirus, a key ingredient in many vaccines, stayed active at +40°C for over a month, outperforming the WHO’s CTC (Controlled Temperature Chain) classification that requires vaccines to tolerate temperatures of +40°C for a minimum of three days.

As LaminarPace has been refined and tested, its drying capabilities for vaccines has emerged as its most highpotential and urgently needed use case. In the field of vaccine formulation, a simple, room-temperature air-drying technology is a milestone innovation.


Integrating LaminarPace into vaccine manufacturing

The manufacturing of vaccines requires low Cost of Goods and the LaminarPace process delivers just that:

  • Operates at room temperature with high yields.
  • The process is very reproducible and robust


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The System

High efficiency system

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LaminarPace was invented by world aerosol authority Dr Per Gerde, Associate Professor of Inhalation Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.

As CSO of Inhalation Sciences AB (ISAB), Dr Gerde originally developed LaminarPace for drying pharmaceutical Candidate Drugs to be used in ISAB’s core technology, PreciseInhale.

Dr. Per Gerde

Realizing that LaminarPace had an extensive number of uses beyond ISAB’s core market, in 2017 LaminarPace was spun-out from ISAB into Ziccum AB – its goal to commercialize the technology towards a wider audience.