Novel administration routes

Particle engineering: the LaminarPace advantage

LaminarPace delivers unique capabilities and competitive advantages in formulating compounds for novel administration routes. It quickly and efficiently dries particles that are well dispersed and well-defined – making them ideal for inhalation, dissolution, aerosols, powders and inhalable formulations.

Investment into global novel drug delivery systems (NDDSs) is forecast to increase by 8% CAGR a year from 2022 to 2031 in a recent report. NDDSs for biologics are particularly attractive. In this fast-moving arena Ziccum has a significant headstart.

  • LaminarPace ambient was originally developed specifically to dry small (1-5 micron) molecules and biologic liquid solutions into inhalable powders for aerosol testing and inhalation.
  • LaminarPace was then highly valued for its unusual ability to dry biologics – and remains so today. This was one of the key advantages that led to it being spun out by Inhalation sciences AB.
  • LaminarPace is being used today in ongoing projects in dry formulations including mRNA Lipid nanoparticles, subunit proteins and adjuvant liposomes.


Increase by 8% per year

Investment in global Novel Drug Delivery systems (NDDSs) forecast to increase by 8% CAGR a year from 2022 to 2031.

Needle-free administration - benefits:

  • Increased thermostability
  • Improved stability
  • Longer shelf-life
  • Ease-of-use and increased compliance
  • Increased coverage
  • Reduced storage and transport costs

Mucosal administration

Mucosal administration delivers significant immunological advantages - whether oral or intranasal. Research into mucosal administration of vaccines and biologics is moving forward rapidly, driven by recent advances in the development of mucosal adjuvant design and the route’s inherent needle-free comfort and usability. An oral mucosal vaccine for cholera for example is currently in Phase III clinical evaluation.

Mucosal administration stimulates the secretion of high levels of potent mucosal Immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies. These IgA antibodies mediate against a wide range of path ogens. IgA antibodies suppress the transmission of diseases far more effectively than parenteral administration routes such as injection. This heightened antibody and T cell response also has the capacity to not only protect against the development of disease symptoms but prevent infection in the first place.

Inhaled vaccines and therapies

In February 2022 a team of researchers at McMaster University in Canada confirmed positive results for their inhaled mucosal Covid-19 vaccine. The research underlined the significant benefits of inhaled vaccines, and how the Covid-19 pandemic has driven new impetus and investment.

LaminarPaceTM delivers unique capabilities and competitive advantages when it comes to formulating compounds for inhaled administration. It delivers greater control over key properties of the dried particles, for example particle size, which is crucial for creating an inhalable material.

Transdermal vaccines and therapies

From blood pressure to pain management to contraception, transdermal administration of treatments through patches is now a well-established administration route. R&D into next-generation microarray patches, particularly for vaccines, is accelerating rapidly too. The global market for transdermal skin patches is forecast to reach 8.13 BUSD in 2026 at a CAGR of 3.4%.

The safety and compliance benefits of traditional transdermal patches over oral tables are well-proven. The adhesive skin patches, made up of polymer-containing drugs, are highly valued for long-term conditions that require multiple tablets to be administered daily. Poor compliance and the risk of side effects from over dosing or undertreatment are a constant challenge in these regimens, so transdermal patches are used widely to administer Alzheimer’s treatments and safely administer pain management.

Microarray patches and vaccines

Intensive development is now underway in the arena of microarray patches, particularly in the field of vaccines. The small, adhesive patches contain an array of micron-scaled needles that administer the vaccine or therapeutic agents. UNICEF is currently championing the rollout of VMPs (Vaccine-containing Microarray Patches), with a large-scale program with the WHO to introduce them globally the treatment of measles and rubella. The patches would be single-dose, needle-free, easy and painless to administer and highly economical to store and transport compared to injectables.